One of the outstanding geological sites in southeastern Minnesota is Barn Bluff (He Mni Can to the Dakota, La Grange to the early French explorers*) in Red Wing. The bluff is a bedrock island oriented roughly east–west, adjacent to the Mississippi River just above the Lake Pepin section. If you were to have gone back to the early postglacial period, it would have been a literal island thanks to meltwater filling the Mississippi River valley.
*All of the names are kind of prosaic, actually. "He Mni Can" is "hill, water, wood", "La Grange" or "Lagrange" is "the barn" for its general shape, and the English name is just a translation of the French.
The view of the south side of the west end. Observant eyes may notice
that the color of the lower outcrops change near the left side of the picture,
from orangish on the left to banded green on the right. Read on for